CsÃ¡rdÃ¡s (Hungarian), often seen with the archaic spelling CzÃ¡rdÃ¡s, is a traditional Hungarian folk dance, the name derived from csÃ¡rda (old Hungarian term for tavern).
It originated in Hungary and was popularized by Romani music (CigÃ¡ny) bands in Hungary and neighboring lands of Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Burgenland, Croatia, Ukraine, Poland, Transylvania and Moravia, as well as among the Banat Bulgarians, including those in Bulgaria.
The origin of the CsÃ¡rdÃ¡s can be traced back to the 18th century Hungarian verbunkos, used as a recruiting dance by the Hungarian army.
The CsÃ¡rdÃ¡s is characterized by a variation in tempo: it starts out slowly (lassÃº) and ends in a very fast tempo (friss, literally "fresh"). There are other tempo variations, called ritka csÃ¡rdÃ¡s, suru csÃ¡rdÃ¡s and szÃ¶kos csÃ¡rdÃ¡s. The music is in 2
4 or 4 4 time. The dancers are both male and female, with the women dressed in traditional wide skirts, usually colored red, which form a distinctive shape when they whirl.
Classical composers who have used csÃ¡rdÃ¡s themes in their works include Emmerich KÃ¡lmÃ¡n, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms, LÃ©o Delibes, Johann Strauss, Pablo de Sarasate, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and others. The csÃ¡rdÃ¡s from Strauss' operetta Die Fledermaus, sung by the character Rosalinde, is probably the most famous example of this dance in vocal music. One of the best-known instrumental csÃ¡rdÃ¡s is the composition by Vittorio Monti written for violin and piano. This virtuosic piece has seven tempo variations.
The original folk csÃ¡rdÃ¡s, as opposed to the later international variants, is enjoying a revival in Hungary thanks to the tÃ¡nchÃ¡z movement.
Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice, p. 28. ISBN 0-415-97440-2.
Kaufman, Nikolaj (2002). "Pesnite na banatskite balgari". Regionalni proucvanija na balgarskija folklor. Tom 4. Severozapadna Balgarija: obÅ¡tnosti, tradicii, identicnost (in Bulgarian): 36. ISSN 0861-6558