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History of Hula Dance
History of Hula Dance History of Hula Dance
´╗┐Hula is a dance form accompanied by chant or song. It was developed in the Hawaiian Islands by the Polynesians who originally settled there. The chant or song is called a mele. The hula dramatizes or comments on the mele.

There are many styles of hula. They are commonly divided into two broad categories: Ancient hula, as performed before Western encounters with Hawaii, is called kahiko. It is accompanied by chant and traditional instruments. Hula as it evolved under Western influence, in the 19th and 20th centuries, is called auana. It is accompanied by song and Western-influenced musical instruments such as the guitar, the ukulele, and the double bass.

Terminology for two main additional categories is beginning to enter the hula lexicon: "Monarchy" includes many hula which were composed and choreographed during the 19th century. During that time the influx of Western culture created significant changes in the formal Hawaiian arts, including hula. "Ai Kahiko", meaning "in the ancient style" are those hula written in the 20th and 21st centuries that follow the stylistic protocols of the ancient hula kahiko.

Hula is taught in schools called halau. The teacher of hula is the kumu hula, where kumu means source of knowledge. Hula dancing is a complex art form, and there are many hand motions used to signify aspects of nature, such as the basic Hula and Coconut Tree motions, or the basic leg steps, such as the Kaholo, Ka'o, and Ami.

There are other dances that come from other Polynesian islands such as Tahiti, Samoa, Tonga and Aotearoa (New Zealand); however, the hula is unique to the Hawaiian Islands.

Hula kahiko (Hula 'Olapa)
Hula kahiko encompassed an enormous variety of styles and moods, from the solemn and sacred to the frivolous. Many hula were created to praise the chiefs and performed in their honor, or for their entertainment.

Serious hula was considered a religious performance. As was true of ceremonies at the heiau, the platform temple, even a minor error was considered to invalidate the performance. It might even be a presage of bad luck or have dire consequences. Dancers who were learning to do such hula necessarily made many mistakes. Hence they were ritually secluded and put under the protection of the goddess Laka during the learning period. Ceremonies marked the successful learning of the hula and the emergence from seclusion.

Hula kahiko is performed today by dancing to the historical chants. Many hula kahiko are characterized by traditional costuming, by an austere look, and a reverence for their spiritual roots.

Chants
Hawaiian history was oral history. It was codified in genealogies and chants, which were memorized strictly as passed down. In the absence of a written language, this was the only available method of ensuring accuracy. Chants told the stories of creation, mythology, royalty, and other significant events and people.

Instruments and Implements
Ipusingle gourd drum
Ipu hekedouble gourd drum
Pahusharkskin covered drum; considered sacred
Puniusmall knee drum made of a coconut shell with fish skin (kala) cover
'Ili 'iliwater-worn lava stone used as castanets
'Uli 'ulifeathered gourd rattles
Pu 'ilisplit bamboo sticks
Kala 'aurhythm sticks
The dog's-tooth anklets sometimes worn by male dancers could also be considered instruments, as they underlined the sounds of stamping feet

Costumes
Traditional female dancers wore the everyday pau, or wrapped skirt, but were topless. Today this form of dress has been altered. As a sign of lavish display, the pau might be much longer than the usual length of tapa, or barkcloth, which was just long enough to go around the waist. Visitors report seeing dancers swathed in many yards of tapa, enough to increase their circumference substantially. Dancers might also wear decorations such as necklaces, bracelets, and anklets, as well as many lei (in the form of headpieces, necklaces, bracelets, and anklets).

Traditional male dancers wore the everyday malo, or loincloth. Again, they might wear bulky malo made of many yards of tapa. They also wore necklaces, bracelets, anklets, and lei.

The materials for the lei worn in performance were gathered in the forest, after prayers to Laka and the forest gods had been chanted.

The lei and tapa worn for sacred hula were considered imbued with the sacredness of the dance, and were not to be worn after the performance. Lei were typically left on the small altar to Laka found in every halau, as offerings.

Costumes play a role in illustrating the hula instructor's interpretation of the mele. While there is some freedom of choice, most halau follow the accepted costuming traditions. Women generally wear skirts or dresses of some sort. Men may wear long or short pants, skirts, or a malo (a cloth wrapped under and around the crotch). For slow, graceful dances, the dancers will wear formal clothing such as a muumuu for women and a sash for men. A fast, lively, "rascal" song will be performed by dancers in more revealing or festive attire. The hula kahiko is always performed with bare feet, but the hula auana can be performed with bare feet or shoes.

Performances
Hula performed for spontaneous daily amusement or family feasts were attended with no particular ceremony. However, hula performed as entertainment for chiefs were anxious affairs. High chiefs typically traveled from one place to another within their domains. Each locality had to house, feed, and amuse the chief and his or her entourage. Hula performances were a form of fealty, and often of flattery to the chief. There were hula celebrating his lineage, his name, and even his genitals (hula mai). Sacred hula, celebrating Hawaiian gods, were also danced. All these performances must be completed without error (which would be both unlucky and disrespectful).

Visiting chiefs from other domains would also be honored with hula performances. This courtesy was often extended to important Western visitors. They left many written records of 18th and 19th century hula performances.

Hula 'auana
Modern hula arose from adaptation of traditional hula ideas (dance and mele) to Western influences. The primary influences were Christian morality and melodic harmony. Hula auana still tells or comments on a story, but the stories may include events since the 1800s. The costumes of the women dancers are less revealing and the music is heavily Western-influenced.

Songs
The mele of hula 'auana are generally sung as if they were popular music. A lead voice sings in a major scale, with occasional harmony parts.

The subject of the songs is as broad as the range of human experience. People write mele hula auana to comment on significant people, places or events or simply to express an emotion or idea. The hula then interprets the mele.

Instruments
The musicians performing hula 'auana will typically use portable acoustic stringed instruments.
Ukulelefour-, six- or eight-stringed, used to maintain the rhythm if there are no other instruments
Guitarused as part of the rhythm section, or as a lead instrument
Steel guitaraccents the vocalist
Bassmaintains the rhythm
Occasional hula 'auana call for the dancers to use implements, in which case they will use the same instruments as for hula kahiko.

Performances
Hula is performed at luau (Hawaiian parties) and celebrations. Hula lessons are common for girls from ages 612 and, just like another kind of dance they have recitals and perform at luau.

Legendary Origins
There are various legends surrounding the origins of hula.

According to one Hawaiian legend Laka, goddess of the hula, gave birth to the dance on the island of Molokai, at a sacred place in Kaana. After Laka died, her remains were hidden beneath the hill Puu Nana.

Another story tells of Hiiaka, who danced to appease her fiery sister, the volcano goddess Pele. This story locates the source of the hula on Kauai, in the north shore valley of Haena.

Another story is when Pele, the goddess of fire was trying to find a home for herself running away from her sister Namakaokaha'i (the goddess of the oceans) when she finally found an island where she couldn't be touched by the waves. There at chain of craters on the island of Hawai'i she danced the first dance of hula signifying that she finally won.

During the 18th Century
American Protestant missionaries, who arrived in 1820, denounced the hula as a heathen dance. The newly Christianized alii (royalty and nobility) were urged to ban the hulawhich they did. However, many of them continued to privately patronize the hula.

The Hawaiian performing arts had a resurgence during the reign of King David Kalakaua (18741891), who encouraged the traditional arts. With the Princess Ruth Keelikolani who devoted herself to the old ways, as the patron of the ancients chants, (Mele, Hula) she stressed the importance to revive the diminishing culture of their ancestors with in the damaging influence of foreigners, and modernism that was forever changing Hawaii.

Practitioners merged Hawaiian poetry, chanted vocal performance, dance movements and costumes to create the new form, the hula kui (kui means "to combine old and new"). The pahu appears not to have been used in hula kui, evidently because its sacredness was respected by practitioners; the ipu gourd (Lagenaria sicenaria) was the indigenous instrument most closely associated with hula kui.

Ritual and prayer surrounded all aspects of hula training and practice, even as late as the early 20th century. Teachers and students were dedicated to the goddess of the hula, Laka.

20th Century Hula
"Honolulu Entertainers" sideshow at a circus in Salt Lake City, 1920Hula changed drastically in the early 20th century as it was featured in tourist spectacles, such as the Kodak Hula Show, and in Hollywood films. However, a more traditional hula was maintained in small circles by older practitioners. There has been a renewed interest in hula, both traditional and modern, since the 1970s and the Hawaiian Renaissance.

Hula is accompanied by song and Western-influenced musical instruments such as the guitar, the ukulele, and the double bass.

Terminology for two main additional categories is beginning to enter the hula lexicon: "Monarchy" includes any hula which were composed and choreographed during the 19th century. During that time the influx of Western culture created significant changes in the formal Hawaiian arts, including hula. "Ai Kahiko", meaning "in the ancient style" are those hula written in the 20th and 21st centuries that follow the stylistic protocols of the ancient hula kahiko.

There are also two main positions of a hula dance - either sitting (noho dance) or standing (luna dance). Some dances utilize both forms.
Hula is taught in schools or groups called halau. The teacher of hula is the kumu hula, where kumu means source of knowledge, or literally just teacher. Often there is a hierarchy in hula schools - starting with the kumu (teacher), alaka'i (leader), kokua (helpers), and then the 'olapa (dancers) or haumana (students).

This is not true for every halau, but it does occur often.

Most, if not all, hula halau(s) have a permission chant in order to enter wherever they may practice. They will collectively chant their entrance chant, then wait for the kumu to respond with the entrance chant, once he or she is finished, the students may enter. One well known and often used entrance or permission chant is Kunihi Ka Mauna/Tunihi Ta Mauna.

Hula dancing is a complex art form, and there are many hand motions used to represent the words in a song or chant. For example, hand movements can signify aspects of nature, such as the swaying of a tree in the breeze or a wave in the ocean, or a feeling or emotion, such as fondness or yearning. Foot and hip movements often pull from a basic library of steps including the kaholo, ka'o, kawelu, hela, 'uwehe, and 'ami.

There are other related dances (tamure, hura, 'aparima, 'ote'a, haka, kapa haka, poi, Fa'ataupati, Tau'olunga, and Lakalaka) that come from other Polynesian islands such as Tahiti, The Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga and Aotearoa (New Zealand); however, the hula is unique to the Hawaiian Islands.


In the 1890s and early 1900s, hula dancers and Hawaiian musicians toured the U.S. mainland. Usually female, the dancers danced in their grass skirts with musicians playing their kitschy Hawaiian melody on their steel guitars and ukulele. This advertisement appeared in an Ohio newspaper in 1921.

Hula Kahiko
Hula kahiko, often defined as those hula composed prior to 1894 which do not include modern instrumentation (such as guitar, `ukulele, etc.), encompasses an enormous variety of styles and moods, from the solemn and sacred to the frivolous. Many hula were created to praise the chiefs and performed in their honor, or for their entertainment.

Many hula dances are considered to be a religious performance, as they are dedicated to, or honoring, a Hawaiian goddess or god. As was true of ceremonies at the heiau, the platform temple, even a minor error was considered to invalidate the performance. It might even be a presage of bad luck or have dire consequences. Dancers who were learning to do such hula necessarily made many mistakes. Hence they were ritually secluded and put under the protection of the goddess Laka during the learning period. Ceremonies marked the successful learning of the hula and the emergence from seclusion.
Hula kahiko is performed today by dancing to the historical chants. Many hula kahiko are characterized by traditional costuming, by an austere look, and a reverence for their spiritual root.

Chants
Hawaiian history was oral history. It was codified in genealogies and chants, which were memorized and passed down. In the absence of a written language, this was the only available method of ensuring accuracy. Chants told the stories of creation, mythology, royalty, and other significant events and people.

Instruments and Implements
Ipu--single gourd drum
Ipu heke--double gourd drum
Pahu ;sharkskin covered drum; considered sacred
Puniu ;small knee drum made of a coconut shell with fish skin (kala) cover
water-worn lava stone used as castanets
feathered gourd rattles
split bamboo sticks
rhythm sticks
The dog's-tooth anklets sometimes worn by male dancers could also be considered instruments, as they underlined the sounds of stamping feet.

Costumes
Traditional female dancers wore the everyday pa?u, or wrapped skirt, but were topless. Today this form of dress has been altered. As a sign of lavish display, they might be much longer than the usual length of tapa, or barkcloth, which was just long enough to go around the waist. Visitors report seeing dancers swathed in many yards of tapa, enough to increase their circumference substantially. Dancers might also wear decorations such as necklaces, bracelets, and anklets, as well as many lei (in the form of headpieces (leipo'o), necklaces, bracelets, and anklets (kupe'e)), and other accessories.

Traditional male dancers wore the everyday malo, or loincloth. Again, they might wear bulky malo made of many yards of tapa. They also wore necklaces, bracelets, anklets, and lei.

The materials for the lei worn in performance were gathered in the forest, after prayers to Laka and the forest gods had been chanted.

The lei and tapa worn for sacred hula were considered imbued with the sacredness of the dance, and were not to be worn after the performance. Lei were typically left on the small altar to Laka found in every halau, as offerings.

Performances
Hula performed for spontaneous daily amusement or family feasts were attended with no particular ceremony. However, hula performed as entertainment for chiefs were anxious affairs. High chiefs typically traveled from one place to another within their domains. Each locality had to house, feed, and amuse the chief and his or her entourage. Hula performances were a form of fealty, and often of flattery to the chief. During the performances the males would start off and the females would come later to close the show off. There were hula celebrating his lineage, his name, and even his genitals (hula ma?i). Sacred hula, celebrating Hawaiian gods, were also danced. All these performances must be completed without error (which would be both unlucky and disrespectful).

Visiting chiefs from other domains would also be honored with hula performances. This courtesy was often extended to important Western visitor.

Modern hula arose from adaptation of traditional hula ideas (dance and mele) to Western influences.

The primary influences were Christian morality and melodic harmony. Hula ?auana still tells or comments on a story, but the stories may include events since the 1800s. The costumes of the women dancers are less revealing and the music is heavily Western-influenced.

Songs
The mele of hula ?auana are generally sung as if they were popular music. A lead voice sings in a major scale, with occasional harmony parts.

The subject of the songs is as broad as the range of human experience. People write mele hula ?auana to comment on significant people, places or events or simply to express an emotion or idea.

Instruments
The musicians performing hula will typically use portable acoustic stringed instruments.
Ukulele--four-, six- or eight-stringed, used to maintain the rhythm if there are no other instruments
Guitar--used as part of the rhythm section, or as a lead instrument
Steel guitar--accents the vocalist
Bass--maintains the rhythm
Occasional hula calls for the dancers to use implements, in which case they will use the same instruments as for hula kahiko. Often dancers use the feathered gourd rattle.

Costumes
Costumes play a role in illustrating the hula instructor's interpretation of the mele. While there is some freedom of choice, most halau follow the accepted costuming traditions. Women generally wear skirts or dresses of some sort. Men may wear long or short pants, skirts, or a malo (a cloth wrapped under and around the crotch). For slow, graceful dances, the dancers will wear formal clothing such as a muumuu for women and a sash for men. A fast, lively, "rascal" song will be performed by dancers in more revealing or festive attire. The hula kahiko is always performed with bare feet, but the hula ?auana can be performed with bare feet or shoes.

History of Hula
Legendary Origins
Female dancers of the Sandwich Islands depicted by Louis Choris, the artist aboard the Russian ship Rurick, which visited Hawai'i in 1816
There are various legends surrounding the origins of hula.

According to one Hawaiian legend, Laka, goddess of the hula, gave birth to the dance on the island of Moloka?i, at a sacred place in Kaana. After Laka died, her remains were hidden beneath the hill Puu Nana.

Another story tells of Hiiaka, who danced to appease her fiery sister, the volcano goddess Pele. This story locates the source of the hula on Hawaii, in the Puna district at the Ha?ena shoreline. The ancient hula Ke Haa Ala Puna describes this event.

Another story is when Pele, the goddess of fire was trying to find a home for herself running away from her sister Namakaokaha'i (the goddess of the oceans) when she finally found an island where she couldn't be touched by the waves. There at chain of craters on the island of Hawai'i she danced the first dance of hula signifying that she finally won.

One story is that Pele asked Laka to amuse her because Pele was bored. So right away Laka got up and began to move gracefully, acting out silently events they both knew. Pele enjoyed this and was fascinated thus Hula was born.

19th Century Hula Dancing
American Protestant missionaries, who arrived in 1820, denounced the hula as a heathen dance. The newly Christianized alii (royalty and nobility) were urged to ban the hula--which they did. However, many of them continued to privately patronize the hula. By the 1850s, public hula was regulated by a system of licensing.

The Hawaiian performing arts had a resurgence during the reign of King David Kalakaua (1874-1891), who encouraged the traditional arts. With the Princess Lili'uokalani who devoted herself to the old ways, as the patron of the ancients chants (mele, hula), she stressed the importance to revive the diminishing culture of their ancestors within the damaging influence of foreigners and modernism that was forever changing Hawaii.

Practitioners merged Hawaiian poetry, chanted vocal performance, dance movements and costumes to create the new form, the hula kui (kui means "to combine old and new"). The pahu appears not to have been used in hula kui, evidently because its sacredness was respected by practitioners; the ipu gourd (Lagenaria sicenaria) was the indigenous instrument most closely associated with hula kui.

Ritual and prayer surrounded all aspects of hula training and practice, even as late as the early 20th century. Teachers and students were dedicated to the goddess of the hula, Laka.

20th Century Hula Dancing
Hula changed drastically in the early 20th century as it was featured in tourist spectacles, such as the Kodak Hula Show, and in Hollywood films. However, a more traditional hula was maintained in small circles by older practitioners. There has been a renewed interest in hula, both traditional and modern, since the 1970s and the Hawaiian Renaissance.

Contemporary Hula Festivals
Moku O Keawe International Festival is a 4-day celebration of hula and the arts of hula held annually in November at Waikoloa Beach Resort, Island of Hawaii. The Festival includes authentic workshops taught by noted kumu, with focus on hula and Hawaiian musical instruments.
Ka Hula Piko, held every May on Molokai.
Merrie Monarch Festival is a week-long cultural festival and hula competition in Hilo on the Big Island of Hawaii. Where the noted Miss Aloha Hula competition occurs.
Hula Workshop, Hoike and Hawaiian Festival, held every July in Vancouver, WA.
E Hula Mau, held every Labor Day Weekend (September) in Long Beach, CA.
World Invitational Hula Festival, a 3 day art and culture contest held every November on Oahu, Hawaii in the Waikiki Shell.
"Share da Aloha", held in February at Saddleback Church in Lake Forest, CA. http://www.ohanapraise.com/
The Ia 'Oe E Ka La Hula Competition and Festival is held annually at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton, California. Friday thru Sunday, traditionally the first weekend in November. http://www.kumuhulaassociation.com
The May Day Festival is held annually at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton, California. Traditionally the second Saturday in May, as of 2006 held both Saturday and Sunday remaining the second weekend in May. http://www.kumuhulaassociation.com
"Tahiti Fete" held during the summer in July, San Jose, CA http://www.tahitifete.com/

Films
Kumu Hula: Keepers of a Culture (1999) Directed by Robert Mugge.
Holo Mai Pele - Halau o Kekuhi (2000) Directed by Catherine Tatge
American Aloha : Hula Beyond Hawai?i (2003) By Lisette Marie Flannery & Evann Siebens
Hula Girls (2006)

Books
Nathaniel Emerson, The Myth of Pele and Hi'iaka. This book includes the original Hawaiian of the Pele and Hi'iaka myth and as such provides an invaluable resource for language students and others.
Nathaniel Emerson, The Unwritten Literature of Hawaii. Many of the original Hawaiian hula chants, together with Emerson's descriptions of how they were danced in the nineteenth century.
Amy Stillman, Hula `Ala`apapa. An analysis of the `Ala`apapa style of sacred hula.
Ishmael W. Stagner: Kumu hula : roots and branches. Honolulu : Island Heritage Pub., 2011. ISBN 978-1-59700-621-7
Jerry Hopkins, The Hula; A Revised Edition: Bess Press Inc., 2011. ISBN 978-1-57306-312-8

References
http://www.huladancehq.com/
MacDonald, Mary N. (5 Dec. 2012). "Indigenous Traditions-- Oceania." Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability. Ed. Willis Jenkins and Whitney Bauman. Vol 1.. Great Barrington, MA: Gale Virtual Reference Library. pp. 229-232.










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