Lion dance (simplified Chinese: pinyin: wushi) is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture and other Asian countries, in which performers mimic a lion's movements in a lion costume.
The lion dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year and other Chinese traditional, cultural and religious festivals. It may also be performed at many other important occasions such as business opening events, special celebrations or wedding ceremonies, or may be used to honour special guests by the Chinese communities.
The Chinese lion dance is often mistakenly referred to as dragon dance.
An easy way to tell the difference is that a lion is normally operated by two dancers, while a dragon needs many people. Also, in a lion dance, the performers' faces are only seen occasionally, since they are inside the lion. In a dragon dance, the performers' faces can be easily seen since the dragon is held on poles. Basic Chinese lion dance fundamental movements can be found in most Chinese martial arts.
There are two main forms of the Chinese lion dance, the Northern Lion and the Southern Lion.
Both forms are commonly found in China, but around the world especially in South East Asia the Southern Lion predominates as it was spread by the Chinese diaspora communities who are historically mostly of Southern Chinese origin.
Versions of the lion dance are also found in Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Tibet. Another form of lion dance exists in Indonesian culture, but this is of a different tradition and may be referred to as Singa Barong.
There is an old tradition in China of dancers wearing masks to resemble animals or mythical beasts since antiquity, and performances described in ancient texts such as Shujing where wild beasts and phoenix danced may have been masked dances.
In Qin Dynasty sources, dancers performing exorcism rituals were described as wearing bearskin mask, and it was also mentioned in Han Dynasty texts that "mime people" performed as fish, dragon, and phoenix. However, lion is not native to China, and the Lion Dance therefore has been suggested to have originated outside of China from countries such as India or Persia, and the dance may have been introduced via Cental Asia.
According to ethnomusicologist Laurence Picken, the Chinese word for lion itself, shi, may have been derived from the Persian word šer, and lions were originally presented to the Han court by emissaries from Central Asia and the Parthian Empire. Detailed descriptions of Lion Dance appeared during the Tang Dynasty and it was already recognized by writers and poets then as a foreign dance, however, the practice of the Lion dance may have been recorded in China as early as the third century AD where "lion acts" were referred to by a Three Kingdoms scholar Meng Kang in a commentary on Hanshu. In the early periods it had association with Buddhism: it was recorded in a Northern Wei text, Description of Buddhist Temples in Luoyang, that a parade for a statue of Buddha of the Changqiu Temple was led by a lion to drive away evil spirits.
There were different versions of the dance in the Tang Dynasty. In the Tang court, the lion dance was called the Great Peace Music (Taiping yue) or the Lion Dance of the Five Directions where five large lions of different colours and expressing different moods were each led on rope by two persons, and accompanied by 140 singers. Later version of the 5 lions were each over 3 metres tall and each had 12 "lion lads" with the lions teased by the performers holding red whisks.
Another version of the lion dance was performed by two persons, and this was described by the Tang poet Bai Juyi in his poem "Western Liang Arts", where the dance was performed by hu (meaning here non-Han people from Central Asia) dancers who wore a lion costume made of a wooden head, a silk tail and furry body, with eyes gilded with gold and teeth plated with silver as well as ears that moved, a form that resembles today's Lion Dance. By the eighth century, this lion dance had reached Japan. During the Song Dynasty the lion dance was commonly performed in festivals and it was known as the Northern Lion during the Southern Song.
The Southern Lion is a later development in the south of China, most likely originating in the Guangdong province. There are a number of myths associated with the origin of this dance: one story relates that the dance originated as a celebration in a village where a mythical monster called Nian was successfully driven away; another has it that Emperor Qianlong dreamt of an auspicious animal while on a tour of Southern China, and ordered that the image of the animal be recreated and used during festivals. However it is likely that the Southern Lion of Guangzhou is an adaptation of the Northern Lion to local myths and characteristics, perhaps during the Ming Dynasty.
The two main types of lion dance in China are the Northern and Southern Lions. There are however also a number of local forms of lion dance in different regions of China, and some of these lions may have significantly differences in appearance, for example the Green Lion (?Qing1 Shi1) popular with the Hokkien people and Taiwanese. Other ethnic minorities groups in China may also have their own lion dances, for examples the lion dance of the Muslim minority in Shenqiu County in Henan. There are also related form of mask figures that represent mythical creatures such as the Qilin and Pixiu. The Qilin dance is most commonly performed by the Hakka people who were originally from northern China, but have largely settled in the south of China and southeast Asia in modern times.
Various forms of lion dance are also found widely in East Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, as well as among the communities in the Himalayan region.
Chinese Northern Lion
The Chinese Northern Lion (pinyin: Bei shi) Dance is often performed as a pair of male and female lions in the north of China. Northern lions may have a gold-painted wooden head, and a shaggy orange and yellow hair with a red bow on its head to indicate a male lion, or a green bow (sometimes green hair) to represent a female. There are however regional variations of the lion.
Northern lions resemble Pekingese or Fu Dogs, and its movements are lifelike during a performance. Acrobatics are very common, with stunts like lifts, or balancing on a tiered platform or on a giant ball. Northern lions sometimes appear as a family, with two large "adult" lions and a pair of small "young lions". There are usually two performers in one adult lion, and one in the young lion. There may also be a "warrior" character who holds a spherical object and leads the lions.
The dance of the Northern Lion is generally more playful than the Southern Lion. Regions with well-known lion dance troupes include Xushui in Hebei province, and Ninghai in Ningbo. There are a number of variations of the lion dance performance, for example the Heavenly Tower Lion Dance (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: Tian ta shi wu) from Xiangfen County in Shanxi is a performance whereby a number of lions climb up a tall tower structure constructed out of wooden stools, and there are also high-wire acts involving lions.
Chinese Southern Lion
The Chinese Southern (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: Nan shi) Lion dance originated from Guangdong. The Southern Lion has a single horn, and is associated with the legend of a mythical monster called Nian. The lion consists of a head which is traditionally constructed using papier-mache over a bamboo frame, and a body made of fabric trimmed with fur.
There are two main styles of Guangdong or Cantonese Lion: the Fut San or Fo Shan (Chinese: pinyin: Fushan; literally "Buddha Mountain"), and the Hok San or He Shan (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: heshan; literally "Crane Mountain"), both named after their place of origin. Other minor styles include the Fut-Hok (a hybrid of Fut San and Hok San created in Singapore), and the Jow Ga (performed by practitioners of Jow family style kung fu). The different lion types can be identified from the design of the lion head.
Fo Shan is the style many Kung Fu schools adopt. It requires power in moves and strength in posture. The lion becomes the representation of the Kung Fu school and only the most advanced students are allowed to perform.
Traditionally, Fo Shan lion has bristles instead of fur and is heavier than the modern ones now popularly used. It also has a very long tail and eyes that swivel left and right. On the back there are gold foiled rims and a gilded area where the troupe's name may be written. All the traditional style Fo Shan have pop-up teeth, tongue, and swiveling eyes. The underside of the tail is white; the designs of the tail are also more square and contain a diamond pattern going down the back, and often has bells attached to the tail.
Although most lion dance costumes comes with a set of matching pants, some practitioners use black Kung-Fu pants to appear more traditional. The newer styles of Fo Shan lions replace all the bristles with fur and the tails are shorter. They eyes are fixed in place, and the tongue and teeth do not pop up. The tail is more curvy in design, does not have a diamond pattern, and lacks bells. The dancers also do not wear wearing Kung-Fu pants. Sometimes the newer versions use a sequin material over the traditional lacquer; while the new lacquer is shinier, it does not last as long as the heavier ones with semi-dull lacquer. Modern lion dance costumes are made to be very durable and some are even waterproof. Newer lions are made with modern materials such as an aluminium and laser stickers, while the traditional ones use bamboo and more durable layered cloth.
The He Shan style lion is known for its richness of expression, unique footwork, magnificent-looking appearance and vigorous drumming style. The founder of this style is thought to be the "Canton Lion King" Feng Gengzhang (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: Feng Gengzhang) in the early 20th century. Feng was born in a village in He Shan county in Guangdong, and he was instructed in martial arts and lion dance by his father.
Later, he also studied martial arts and Southern lion dance in Foshan before returning to his hometown and setting up his own training hall, teaching and researching the art of lion dance. He developed a unique version of lion dance, creating new techniques by studying and mimicking movement of cats, such as "catching mouse, playing, catching birds, high escape, lying low and rolling". He and his disciples also made changes to the body of the Fo Shan lion, making it more well-built and powerful in structure with eye-catching colours. Together with new dance steps and agile footwork, a more expressive lion danced to the unique rhythm invented of Feng, the "Seven Star Drum", Feng created a new style of lion dancing that is high in entertainment value and visual appeal.
In the early 1920s, the He Shan lion dance was performed when Sun Yat-Sen assumed office in Guangzhou, and created a sensation both within and outside of the province. Around 1945, He Shan lion performers were often invited to perform in many places within China and Southeast Asia during many celebratory festivals. The He Shan style became very popular in Singapore and acquired the title of "Lion King of Kings".
Today's He Shan lions have a powerful and impressive build, and has a "king" character on its forehead and a confident expression. Much work has been done by the Singapore He Shan Association to improve the lion dance, for example making the lion more "cat-like" by shortening the tail of He Shan lion, and creating new drum beat for the dance such as the Fo Shan 18 beats. The He Shan lion is promoted as a tourist attraction in Singapore today, for example in the island resort of Sentosa.
Southern Lion Dance in Sydney
Different colors are used to signify the age and character of the lions. The lion with white fur is considered to be the oldest of the lions, while the lion with golden yellow fur is the middle child. The black lion is considered the youngest lion, and the movement of this lion should be fast like a young child or a headstrong teenager. The colors may also represent the character of the lion: the golden lion represents liveliness, the red lion courage, and the green lion friendship. There are also three lion types that represent three historical characters recorded in the classic Romance of the Three Kingdoms who were blood oath brothers that swore to restore the Han dynasty.
The Liu Bei (Cantonese: Lau Pei) lion is the eldest of the three brothers and has a yellow (actually imperial yellow as he became the first emperor of the Shu-Han Kingdom) based face with white beard and fur (to denote his wisdom). It sports a multi coloured tail (white underside) signifying the colors of the five elements as it was believed that being the Emperor, he had the blessings of the heavens and thus control of the five elements. Older Liu Bei lions also have black in the tail while the new ones do not. There are three coins on the collar. This lion is used by schools with an established Martial art master (Sifu) or organization and is known as the Rui Shi (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: Ruì Shi; literally "Auspicious Lion").
The Guan Gong (Cantonese: Kwan Kung) lion has a red based face, black bristles, with a long black beard (as he was also known as the "Duke with the Beautiful Beard"). The tail is red and black with white trim and a white underside. He is known as the second brother and sports two coins on the collar. This Lion is known as the Xing Shi (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: Xing Shi; literally "Awakened Lion"). This is a commonly-used lion.
The Zhang Fei (Cantonese: Cheung Fei) lion has a black based face with short black beard, small ears, and black bristles. The tail is black and white with white trim and a white underside. Traditionally this lion also had bells attached to the body, which served as a warning like a rattler on a rattle snake. Being the youngest of the three brothers, there is a single coin on the collar. This Lion is known as the Dou Shi (simplified Chinese: traditional Chinese: pinyin: Dòu Shi; literally "Fighting Lion") because Zhang Fei had a quick temper and loved to fight. This lion is used by clubs that were just starting out or by those wishing to make a challenge.
Later three more Lions were added to the group.
The Green Faced Lion represented Zhao Yun or Zhao (Cantonese: Chiu) Zi Long. The Zhao Zi Long lion is a green lion with a green tail with black trim and a white underside, as well as a white beard and fur and an iron horn. He is often called the fourth brother, this lion is called the Heroic Lion because it is said he rode through Cao Cao's million man army and rescued Liu Bei's infant and fought his way back out.
The Yellow (yellow/orange) face and body with white beard represented Huang Zhong (Cantonese: Wong Tsung), we was given this color when Liu Bei rose to become Emperor. The Huang Joon has a full yellow tail with white trim. This lion is called the Righteous Lion.
The white lion is known as Ma Chao (Cantonese: Ma Chiu), he was assigned this color because he always wore a white arm band to battle against the Emperor of Wei, Cao Cao, to signify that he was in mourning for his father and brother who had been murdered by Cao Cao. Thus this lion was known as the funeral lion. This lion is never used except for the funeral of a Master or an important head of the group, and in such cases the lion is usually burned right after use as it is symbolically inauspicious to be kept around. This lion is sometimes confused with the silver lion which sometimes has a white like colouring. These three along with Guan Yu and Zhang Fei were known as the "Five Tiger Generals of Shun," each representing one of the colors of the five elements.
The lion dance is referred to in Vietnam as the unicorn dance (Vietnamese: mua lan). It was imported from China but has acquired local characteristics. Most lions in Vietnam resemble the Chinese Southern Lion but there are also distinct local forms that differ significantly in appearance and performance. The dance is performed primarily at traditional festivals such as Vietnamese lunar new year (Tet) and Vietnamese Mid-Autumn Festival (Tet trung thu), as well as during other occasions such as the opening of a new business. The dance is highly symbolic, supposedly used to ward off evil spirits. There are an abundance of styles and the lion dances are typically accompanied by martial artists and acrobatics.
A significant and distinctive feature of the Vietnamese unicorn dance is its dance partner, the spirit of the earth, depicted as a large bellied, broadly grinning man holding a palm-leaf fan. The good-hearted spirit, according to popular beliefs, has the power to summon the auspicious unicorn, and thus during the dance, takes the lead in clearing the path for the unicorn. The comical appearance of Ông Ð?a adds to the festive and merry-making nature of the dance.
Japan has a long tradition of the lion dance and the dance is known as shishi-mai in Japanese. It is thought to have been imported from China during the Tang Dynasty, and became associated with celebration of Buddha's birthday. The oldest surviving lion mask, made of paulownia wood with an articulated lower jaw, is preserved in Japan. The dance is commonly performed during the New Year where the lion dancers may be accompanied by flute and drum musicians.
There are a great number of different lion dances in Japan, and the style of dancing and design of the lion differs by region. The lion dance has been completely absorbed into Japanese tradition, and it is used also in religious Shinto festivals as part of a performing art form called kagura. There are two main groups of shishi kagura - the daikagura which is mainly acrobatic, and the yamabushi kagura.
The Japanese lion consists of a wooden, lacquered head called a shishi-gashira (lit. Lion Head), and a characteristic body of green dyed cloth with white designs. It can be manipulated by a single person, or two to three persons, one of whom manipulates the head. As with Chinese lions, the make of the head and designs on the body will differ from region to region, and even from school to school. The lion mask however may sometimes have horns appearing as a deer as shishi can also mean beast or deer apart from lion. The dance may also sometimes feature tigers (tora) or qilin (kirin).
In Okinawa, a similar dance exists, though the lion there is considered to be a legendary shisa. The heads, bodies and behavior of the shisa in the dance are quite different than the shishi on mainland Japan. Instead of dancing to the sounds of flutes and drums, the Okinawan shisa dance is often performed to folk songs played with the sanshin.
Korean Bukcheong sajanoreum
There are two main traditions of lion dance in Korea, the saja-noreum, which is performed as an exorcism drama; and the sajach'um which is performed in association with masked drama. The best known of the Korean lion dances is the Bukcheong sajanoreum or lion mask play from Bukcheong. In this dance performers may don five different masks including a huge but comic lion mask. The dance was originally performed every night of first fifteen nights of the lunar New Year, where the dance troupe in lion masks and costumes visited every house in the villages of the Bukcheong region, and the lion dance is meant to expel evil spirits and attract good luck for the coming year. There was also once a court version of the lion dance.
Snow Lion dance of Monpa
In the Himalayan area, there is also a lion dance which is called the snow lion dance. This dance may be found in Tibet where it is called Senggeh Garcham, among the Monpa people in Arunachal Pradesh, and in Sikkim where it is called Singhi Chham. The snow lion has white fur, and in Tibet, it may also have a green mane or green fringes, while in Sikkim, the mane is blue.
The Snow Lion is regarded as an emblem of Tibet and the Snow Lion Dance is popular dance in Tibetan communities and it is performed during festivals such as during the ritual dance (cham) festival and the New Year. The snow lion dance may be performed as a secular dance, or as a ritual dance performed by bon po monks. The dance may have a long history in Tibet, but may also have been influenced by Chinese Lion Dance in the Sino-Tibetan borderland.
The lion (Indonesian: barong) dance in Indonesia is of a different tradition and is unrelated to the Chinese dance. It forms part of local Muslim and Hindu cultures. The most well-known lion dances are performed in Bali and Java.
The Reog dance of Ponorogo involves a lion figure known as the singa barong. It is held on special occasions such as the Islamic holiday of Eid al-Fitr. A single dancer, or warok, carries the heavy lion mask by his teeth. He is credited with supernatural abilities and strength. The warok may also carry an adolescent boy or girl on his shoulders.
In Hindu Balinese culture, the Barong is the king of good spirits, and the enemy of the demon queen Rangda. Like the Chinese lion, it requires more dancers than in the Javanese Reog.
The Chinese lion dance is referred to as barongsai in Indonesia.
Music and Instruments
The Chinese Lion Dance is performed accompanied by the music of beating of drums, cymbals, and gongs. Instruments synchronise to the lion dance movements and actions. Developments in electronic devices have allowed music to be played via phone/tablet/computer/mp3 player. This has contributed to the evolution of how people can play lion dance music - which eliminates the need to carry around instruments (which can be quite large).
The lion dance costumes used in these performances can only be custom made in speciality craft shops in rural parts of China and have to be imported at considerable expense for most foreign countries outside Asia. For groups in Western countries, this is made possible through funds raised through subscriptions and pledges made by members of local cultural and business societies. For countries like Malaysia with a substantial Chinese population, local expertise may be available in making the "lion" costumes and musical instruments without having to import them from China.
Association with Wushu/kung Fu
The Chinese lion dance (especially the Taiwanese Lion) has close relations to Kung Fu or Wushu and the dancers are usually martial art members of the local kung fu club or school. They practice in their club and some train hard to master the skill as one of the disciplines of the martial art. In general, it is seen that if a school has a capable troupe with many 'lions', it demonstrates the success of the school. It is also generally practised together with Dragon dance in some area.
During Chinese New Years and Festivals
During the Chinese New Year, lion dance troupes from the Chinese martial art schools or Chinese guild and associations will visit the houses and shops of the Chinese community to perform the traditional custom of "cai qing" , literally meaning "plucking the greens", whereby the lion plucks the auspicious green vegetables like lettuce either hung on a pole or placed on a table in front of the premises. The "greens" (qing) is tied together with a "red envelope" containing money and may also include auspicious fruit like oranges. In Chinese cai (pluck) also sounds like cai (meaning vegetable) and cai (meaning fortune). The "lion" will dance and approach the "green" and "red evelope" like a curious cat, to "eat the green" and "spit" it out but keep the "red envelope" which is the reward for the lion troupe. The lion dance is believed to bring good luck and fortune to the business. During the Qing Dynasty, there may be additional hidden meanings in the performances, for example the green vegetables (qing) eaten by the lion may represent the Qing Manchus.
Different types of vegetables, fruits, foods or utensils with auspicious and good symbolic meanings; for instance pineapples, pamelos, bananas, oranges, sugar cane shoots, coconuts, beer, clay pots or even crabs can be used to be the "greens" to be "plucked" to give different difficulty and challenge for the lion dance performers. But the difficulties of the challenge should comes with the bigger the rewards of the "red envelope" given.
In the old days, the lettuce was hung 5 to 6 metres above ground and only a well-trained martial artist could reach the money while dancing with a heavy lion head. These events became a public challenge. A large sum of money was rewarded, and the audience expected a good show. Sometimes, if lions from multiple martial arts schools approached the lettuce at the same time, the lions are supposed to fight to decide a winner. The lions had to fight with stylistic lion moves instead of chaotic street fighting styles. The audience would judge the quality of the martial art schools according to how the lions fought. Since the schools' reputation were at stake, the fights were usually fierce but civilized. The winner lion would then use creative methods and martial art skills to reach the high-hanging reward. Some lions may dance on bamboo stilts and some may step on human pyramids formed by fellow students of the school. The performers and the schools would gain praise and respect on top of the large monetary reward when they did well. Lion dance troupes have the onus of giving a good show or face the consequence of an unhappy client.
During the 1950s-60s, in some areas with high population of Chinese and Asian communities especially the Chinatown in many foreign countries abroad China in the world, people who joined lion dance troupes were "gangster-like" and there was a lot of fighting between lion dance troupes and kung fu schools. Parents were afraid to let their children join lion dance troupes because of the "gangster" association with the members. During festivals and performances, when lion dance troupes met, there may be fights between groups. Some lifts and acrobatic tricks are designed for the lion to "fight" and knock over other rival lions. Performers even hid daggers in their shoes and clothes, which could be used to injure other lion dancers' legs, or even attached a metal horn on their lion's forehead, which could be used to slash other lion heads. The violence became so extreme that at one point the Hong Kong government banned lion dance completely. Now, as with many other countries, lion dance troupes must attain a permit from the government in order to perform lion dance. Although there is still a certain degree of competitiveness, troupes are a lot less violent and aggressive.
Today, lion dance is a more sport-oriented activity. Lion dance is more for recreation than a way of living. But there are still plenty of troupes who still practice the traditional ways and taboos of the lion dance as it is practiced in the past.
In a traditional performance, when the dancing lion enters a village or township, it is supposed to pay its respects first at the local temple(s), then to the ancestors at the ancestral hall, and finally through the streets to bring happiness to all the people.
Evolution and Competition
Lion dance in competition may be performed on a series of small circular platforms on poles.
Lion dance has spread across the world due to the worldwide presence of the diaspora Chinese communities and immigrant settlers in many countries in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific Polynesia, and in particular, in South East Asia where there is a large overseas Chinese presence.
The dance has evolved considerably since the early days when it was perform as a skill part of Chinese martial arts, and has grown into a more artistic art that takes into accounts the lion's expression and the natural movements, as well as the development of a more elaborate acrobatic styles and skills during performances. This maybe performed as a cultural performances or during competitions. This evolution and development has produced the modern form of lion dances and competition are held to find the best lion dance performances. The competition may be performed on a series of small circular platforms raised on poles, and is judged based on the skill and liveliness of the "lion" together with the creativity of the stunts and choreographed moves, as well as the difficulty of the acrobatics, and rhythmic and pulsating live instrumental accompaniment that can captivate the spectators and the judges of the competition.
International Lion Dance championships are held in many countries, for example in Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan.
The lion dance is seen as a representative part of Chinese culture in many overseas Chinese communities, and in some South East Asian countries, there were attempts to ban or discourage the dance in order to suppress the Chinese cultural identity in those countries.
For example, in Malaysia, lion dance was criticized by a Malay politician in the 1970s as not Malaysian in style and suggested that it be changed to a tiger dance, and it was banned except at Chinese New Year until 1990. Lion dance became a matter of political and public debate about the national culture of the country. During the Suharto era in Indonesia, public expression of Chinese culture was also banned and barongsai (lion dance) procession was considered "provocative" and "an affront to Indonesian nationalism". This ban was however overturned after the collapse of the Suharto regime in 1998, but nevertheless the occasional local banning of the lion dance still occurred.
In Popular Culture
In the 1960s and 1970s, during the era when the Hong Kong's Chinese classic and martial arts movies are very popular, Kung fu movies including Jet Li's "Wong Fei Hung" has actually indirectly shows and indicates how lion dance was practised with the Kung fu close co-relation and Kung fu during that time. Those days, the lion dance was mostly practised and perform as Wushu or Kung fu skills, with the challenge for the 'lion' built of chairs and tables stack up together for the 'lions' to perform its stunts and accomplish its challenge.
Several 1990s movies, including a remade version of "Wong Fei Hung", and the sequels of Once Upon a Time in China, involve plots centered on Lion Dancing, especially Once Upon a Time in China III and IV. The series main actor, Jet Li has performed as a lion dancer in several of his films, including Southern style lion dancing in Once Upon a Time in China III, Once Upon a Time in China and America and Northern style lion dancing in Shaolin Temple 2 and Shaolin Temple 3.
Fan Pen Li Che (2007). Chinese Shadow Theatre: History, Popular Religion, and Women Warriors. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0773531970.
"Shang Shu - Yu Shu - Yi and Ji". Chinese Text Project.
Wang Kefen (1985). The History of Chinese Dance. China Books & Periodicals. p. 25-27. ISBN 978-0835111867.
Faye Chunfang Fei, ed. (2002). Chinese Theories of Theater and Performance from Confucius to the Present. University of Michigan Press. p. 24-25. ISBN 978-0472089239.
Berthold Laufer. Kleinere Schriften: Publikationen aus der Zeit von 1911 bis 1925. 2 v. p. 1444. ISBN 978-3515026512.
Mona Schrempf (2002), "chapter 6 - The Earth-Ox and Snowlion", in Toni Huber, Amdo Tibetans in Transition: Society and Culture in the Post-Mao Era, Brill, p. 164, ISBN 9004125965, "During the Persian New Year of Newruz, a lion dance used to be performed by young boys, some of them naked it seems, who were sprinkled with cold water. They were thus supposed to drive out evil forces and the cold of the winter."
Marianne Hulsbosch, Elizabeth Bedford, Martha Chaiklin, ed. (2010). Asian Material Culture. Amsterdam University Press. p. 112-118.
Laurence E. R. Picken (1984). Music for a Lion Dance of the Song Dynasty. Musica Asiatica: volume 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0521278379.
Wilt L. Idema, ed. (1985). The Dramatic Oeuvre of Chu Yu-Tun: 1379 - 1439. Brill. p. 52. ISBN 9789004072916.
Wang Kefen (1985). The History of Chinese Dance. China Books & Periodicals. p. 53. ISBN 978-0835111867.
Carol Stepanchuk, Charles Choy Wong (1992). Mooncakes and Hungry Ghosts: Festivals of China. China Books & Periodicals. p. 38. ISBN 978-0835124812.
Dorothy Perkins, ed. (1998). Encyclopedia of China: History and Culture. Facts On File Inc. p. 354. ISBN 978-0816026937.
"Lion Dance". China Daily.
"South Lion: the Guangzhou Lion Dance". Life of Guangzhou. 13 February 2009.
"Taipei (Taiwanese Lion)". Shaolin Lohan Pai Dance Troupe.
"Besides The Lion". The Lion Arts.
"Qilin Dancing During the Lunar New Year and Southern Chinese Martial Culture". Kung Fu Tea.
"The Hakka Chinese: Their Origin, Folk Songs And Nursery Rhymes".
"The Difference in Lion Dance". The Lion Arts.
Benji Chang (2013). "Chinese Lion Dance in the United States". In Xiaojian Zhao, Edward J.W. Park, PH.D. Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-1598842395.
"Making a Chinese Lion Head". The Chinese Art of Lion Dancing.
"Southern (Cantonese) Lions". Shaolin Lohan Pai Lion Dance Troupe.
Marianne Hulsbosch, Elizabeth Bedford, Martha Chaiklin, ed. (2010). Asian Material Culture. Amsterdam University Press. p. 110.
Benito Ortolani (1995). The Japanese Theatre: From Shamanistic Ritual to Contemporary Pluralism. Princeton University Press. p. 26-27. ISBN 978-0691043333.
Brian Bocking (1997). A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Routledge. p. 134. ISBN 978-0700710515.
Keith Pratt, Richard Rutt, ed. (1999). Korea: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary. Routledge. p. 271. ISBN 978-0700704637.
"Traditions revived during Seollal holidays". Korean Herald. 2010-04-04.
"Bukcheong Saja-nori". Asia-Pacific Database on Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH).
"Tibetan Snow Lion Dance". Tibet Views.
"Tawang Festival". India Travel.
Shobhna Gupta (2007). Dances of India. Har-Anand. p. 76. ISBN 978-8124108666.
J. R. Subba (2008). History, Culture and Customs of Sikkim. Gyan Books Pvt. Ltd. p. 193. ISBN 9788121209649.
Mona Schrempf (2002), Toni Huber, ed., Amdo Tibetans in Transition: Society and Culture in the Post-Mao Era, Brill, pp. 147-169, ISBN 9004125965
Marianne Hulsbosch, Elizabeth Bedford, Martha Chaiklin, ed. (2010). Asian Material Culture. Amsterdam University Press. p. 117.
Malaysia Muar Lion Dance Troupe is World Champion|New Straits Times |11 February 1994
Sharon A. Carstens (2012). "Chapter 8, Dancing Lions and Disappearing History: The National Culture Debates and Chinese Malaysian Culture". Histories, Cultures, Identities: Studies in Malaysian Chinese Worlds. NUS Press. pp. 144-169. ISBN 978-9971693121.
Wanning Sun, ed. (2006). Media and the Chinese Diaspora: Community, Communications and Commerce. p. 10. ISBN 978-0415352048.
by M. Jocelyn Armstrong, R. Warwick Armstrong, K. Mulliner, ed. (2001). Chinese Populations in Contemporary Southeast Asian Societies: Identities, Interdependence and International Influence. Routledge. p. 222. ISBN 978-0700713981.
Jean Elizabeth DeBernardi (2004). Penang: Rites of Belonging in a Malaysian Chinese Community. Stanford University Press. p. 255. ISBN 978-0804744867.
Leo Suryadinata (2008). Ethnic Chinese in Contemporary Indonesia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
"Chinese Lion Dance Banned in Indonesia's Aceh". Jakarta Globe. December 21, 2009.